Friday, June 27, 2014

A Timeline for National HIV Testing Day

Happy National HIV Testing Day #stigmawarriors! Today we decided to present a timeline to show how far testing of HIV and AIDS has come in the United States, especially since there is a renewed effort by the LGBT community, HIV community, and the medical community to remove the stigma surrounding getting tested! 

The history of HIV testing is almost as old as the history of HIV in the United States, and since the 1980s the types of tests and how they detect HIV have changed so much. Let's take a look at how far HIV testing has come!


1980-1984:

  • The City and County of San Francisco, working with the Shanti Project and the San Francisco AIDS Foundation, set up the San Francisco Model of Care in 1982, emphasizing home and community testing, care and treatment services [1]. 
  • The following year, in May 1983, Congress passed the first bill that included funding specifically targeted at AIDS research, which lead to developments in testing and treatment [2].


1985-1989:

Between 1985, there was a lot of developments when it came to HIV testing! 

  • The FDA licensed ELISA, the first commercial blood test which tested for HIV antibodies in the blood. Blood banks immediately began testing the US blood supply [3]. 
  • Unfortunately, the Pentagon announced in the summer of 1985 that the military would immediately begin testing all new recruits for HIV infections, with the intention to reject anyone who tested positive. This policy sadly continues today [4]. 
  • On December 6, 1985, the US Public Health Services issued the first recommendations for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission [5].
  • In April 1987, the FDA approved the Western Blot Blood Test Kit, a more specific test for HIV antibodies [6]. 
  • On August 14, 1987, the CDC issued the Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Public SafetyGuidelines for Counseling and Antibody Testing to Prevent HIV Infection and AIDS [7].
  • On August 18, 1987, the FDA sanctioned the first human tests of a candidate vaccine to prevent HIV [8]. 
  • At the end of 1987, the FDA published regulations which required all blood and plasma collected in the US to be screened for HIV [9].
  • IN 1988, the FDA doubled its efforts to test the US blood and plasma supply, and by the end of the year 100% of the US blood supply had been tested for HIV antibodies [10]. 
  • More importantly, the first World AIDS Day took place on December 1, 1988 [11].
  • In 1989, the FDA licensed the first diagnostic kit to test for HIV antigens. Prior to this all HIV tests had only tested for antibodies [12].


1990-1994:

  • The early 1990s brought more new HIV tests and health regulations to the public. The first HIV test to test for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies was licensed in 1990 [13], and that same year the CDC adopted the HIV-prevention counseling model, a “client-centered” approach that focuses on the patient rather than the disease [14]. 
  • On May 27, 1992, the FDA licensed a 10-minute diagnostic test kit which can be used by health professionals to detect the presence of HIV-1 [15]. 
  • The following year, the FDA published an interim rule on December 14th establishing a requirement for certain infectious disease testing, donor screening, and record keeping to help prevent the transmission of HIV and Hepatitis B and C through human tissue used in transplantation [16]. 
  • Later that month, on December 23rd, the FDA approved the first non-blood based collection kit utilizing oral fluid for use in the detection of the antibody to HIV-1 [17].


1995-1999:

  • The National Association of People Living with AIDS launched the first National HIV Testing Day on June 27, 1995 [18]. 
  • That same year, the FDA recommended that blood establishments should implement donor screening for HIV-1 antigen using licensed test kits [19].
  • 1996 brought some of the biggest and quickest advancement in HIV testing to date. Within four months the FDA approved the first at-home testing and collection kit, a viral load test, and the first HIV urine test [20]. 
  • In 1998, the FDA approved Cambridge Biotech HIV-1, a HIV-1 (Western Blot) test with a new indication for urine specimen testing [21].


2000-2004:

  • The first National HIV Vaccine Awareness Day was observed in 2001, and the CDC announced an HIV Prevention Strategic Plan to cut annual HIV infections in the US by half within five years that same year [22]. 
  • The following year, 2002, marked an important development in HIV testing. On November 7, the FDA approved the first rapid HIV diagnostic test kit for use in the United States that provides results with 99.6% accuracy in as little as 20 minutes. Unlike other antibody tests for HIV, this blood test can be stored at room temperature, requires no specialized equipment, and may be used outside of traditional laboratory or clinical settings, allowing more widespread use of HIV testing [23].
  • HIV testing became even more widespread on February 3, 2003, when the Department of Health and Human Services expanded availability of the rapid HIV test from the current 38,000 laboratories to more than 100,000 sites, including physician offices and HIV counseling centers [24]. 
  • In 2004, the first rapid oral fluid test and the first rapid-body test for plasma which detects HIV-1 and HIV-2 were approved by the CDC [25].


2005-2009:

  • The CDC officially recommended routine HIV screenings in US health care settings for people aged 13-64, and yearly screening for populations considered to be "at-risk" in 2006. 
  • The WHO and UNAIDS updated their global guidelines in 2007 to include that same recommendation [26]. 
  • On December 30, 2008, the FDA approved the first nucleic acid test to detect the presence of two less common types of HIV, HIV-2 and HIV-1 Group O, in donated blood plasma and human tissue [27]. 
  • The following year, in 2009, the FDA, CDC, and other federal agencies promoted National HIV Testing Day to increase awareness of the importance of HIV testing to help improve the health of those at risk for getting HIV and to prevent future infections [28]. 


2010-2014:

  • In 2010, the CDC approved the first test which detects HIV antigens and antibodies [29]. 
  • The first rapid oral fluid home test, Oraquick, was approved by the CDC in 2012 [30]. 
  • And in 2013, the CDC approved the first rapid test that detects HIV antigens and antibodies, and distinguishes between acute and established HIV-1 infections [31]. 

What a trip! I learned so much about the history of HIV testing that I never knew before! I hope you did too! 

It shows just how far HIV testing really has come from the early days. With new testing technology people can even test inside the comfort of their own homes. Now the next step is removing the stigma surrounding HIV testing, which several public campaigns are striving to do. But the campaigns won't be successful without you, #stigmawarriors! Let's get out there today and every other day to reduce the stigma surrounding HIV testing, through our words and actions. That way, more people will feel encouraged and supported in taking charge of their health!

We hope National HIV Testing Day inspires you to get out there and be the best #stigmawarrior you can be!



8 comments:

  1. Good day My Name is Mike mougar i am here to share a great testimony of my life i was cure from HIV by a Doctor Name DR CUBA i have been HIV for 5 year i saw doctor Email on the internet so i contact him and i explain to him i follow up the instruction behold 6 days later after taking the cure i went for a HIV text to my surprise it was Negative my family doctor was surprise my husband who abandon me was surprise my brother if you no that you are positive please i will advise you to contact him now and see for your self his Email is drcubatemple@gmail.com why is website is......[ www.dr-cubatemple.webs.com] and also you can contact on whatsapp +2347038965900

    ReplyDelete
  2. Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I will live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HIV) for the past 3 years now; I had spent a lot of money going from one places to another, from churches to churches, hospitals have been my home every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR. CUBA helped someone in curing his HIV disease, quickly I copied his email which is drcubatemple@gmail.com just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, he is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just Email is drcubatemple@gmail.com why is website is......[ www.dr-cubatemple.webas.com] and also you can contact on whatsapp +2347038965900

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  3. Hello everyone out there,Do you know that there is a great Herbal doctor who can cure any deadly disease? Like Cancer, Hiv, syphilis, diabetes, herpes madness, low spam count And also bring back your Lover e.t.c. Well my main reason why i am writing this right now is to inform the whole world about the great deeds, Dr.Ebosa did for me. I was diagnosed of this deadly disease in the year 2007 ever since then i was taking my medications, until i met the great herbal doctor, though i never believed in herbal med. I saw many testimonies on how a great herbal doctor cured their deadly diseases. I contacted him through his phone number. I called him, he asked me to send him my email, which i did. He gave me a form to fill, I filled it and send it back to him. He told me that he required some items in which he will use in preparing the herbal medicine for me. I don't know where to find the items he required. He told me that the only alternative is for me to send him the money, then he can help me to purchase the items from the items sellers. I promised myself to do anything to get cured. I sent him the money. He bought the items and he prepared the herbal medicine and send to me through courier service delivery and i make use of it as he instructed. few weeks later he asked me to go for check-up, when i did the check-up i was tested HIV Negative. If you are passing through hardship and you need a way out, kindly contact him via his email on ebosaherbalremedy@hotmail.com or http://ebosaherbalremedy.blogspot.com/

    ReplyDelete
  4. MY NAME IS DORIS ALFRED FROM SOUTH AFRICA...I SAW THIS COMMENT ON POSITIVE BLOGS AND I WILL LOVE TO TELL EVERY BODY HOW MY STATUS CHANGES TO NEGATIVE, AND AM NOW A LIVING WITNESS OF IT AND I THINK ITS A SHAME ON ME IF I DON'T SHARE THIS LOVELY STORY WITH OTHER PEOPLE INFeCTED WITH THIS DEADLY VIRUS...,HIV HAS BEEN ONGOING IN MY FAMILY... I LOST BOTH PARENTS TO HIV,. AND IT IS SO MUCH PAIN IVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO GET OVER.. AS WE ALL KNOW MEDICALLY THERE IS NO SOLUTION TO IT..AND MEDICATION IS VERY EXPENSIVE..SO SOMEONE INTRODUCED ME TO A NATIVE MEDICAL PRACTITIONER IN AFRICA..I HAD A JOB THERE TO EXECUTE SO I TOOK TIME TO CHECK OUT ON HIM.I SHOWED HIM ALL MY TESTS AND RESULTS.. I WAS ALREADY DIAGNOSED WITH HIV AND IT WAS ALREADY TAKING ITS TOWL ON ME.. I HAD SPENT THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS SO I DECIDED TO TRY HIM OUT...I WAS ON HIS DOSAGE FOR 3 WEEKS. ALTHOUGH I DIDNT BELIEVE IN IT, I WAS JUST TRYING IT OUT OF FRUSTRATION... AND AFTER 2 WEEKS, I WENT FOR NEW TESTS... AND YOU WONT BELIEVE THAT 5 DIFFERENT DOCTORS CONFIRMED IT THAT AM NEGATIVE..IT WAS LIKE A DREAM,,I NEVER BELIEVE AIDS HAS CURE..AM NOW NEGATIVE,,AM A LIVING WITNESS..I DONT KNOW HOW TO THANK THIS MAN... I JUST WANT TO HELP OTHERS IN ANY WAY I CAN..HAVE JOINED MANY FORUMS AND HAVE POSTED THIS TESTIMONIES AND ALOT OF PEOPLE HAS MAIL AND CALLED THIS MAN ON PHONE AND AFTER 2 MONTHS THEY ALL CONFIRMED NEGATIVE..BBC NEWS TOOK IT LIVE AND EVERY.. HOPE HE HELPS YOU OUT.. EVERYBODY SAW IT AND ITS NOW OUT IN PAPERS AND MAGAZINES THAT THERE'S NATIVE CURE FOR HIV AND ALL WITH THE HELP OF THIS MAN,,HAVE TRIED MY OWN PARTS AND ALL LEFT WITH YOU,,IF YOU LIKE TAKE IT OR NOT..GOD KNOWS HAVE TRIED MY BEST.ABOUT 97 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN CONFIRMED NEGATIVE THROUGH ME..AND THEY SEND MAILS TO THANKS ME AFTER THEY HAVE BEEN CONFIRMED NEGATIVE,,THIS MAN IS REAL..DON'T MISS THIS CHANCE,,HIV IS A DEADLY VIRUS,,GET RID OF IT NOW..

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  5. Dr.Omoa is the only Dr who could ever get my HIV-AIDS cured with his healing spell, i have tried almost everything but i couldn't find any solution on my disease, despite all these happening to me, i always spend a lot to buy a HIV drugs from hospital and taking some several medications but no relieve, until one day i was just browsing on the internet when i come across a great post of !Michelle! who truly said that she was been diagnose with HIV and was healed that very week through the help of these great powerful healing spell doctor, sometime i really wonder why people called him Dr.Omoa, i never knew it was all because of the great and perfect work that he has been doing that is causing all this. so i quickly contacted him, and he ask me some few questions and he said a thing i will never forget that anyone who contacted him is ! always getting his or her healing in just 6 hours after doing all he ask you, so i was amazed all the time i heard that from him, so i did all things only to see that at the very day which he said i will be healed, all the strength that has left me before rush back and i becomes very strong and healthy, this disease almost kills my life all because of me, so i will to hospital to give the final test to the disease and the doctor said i am HIV negative, i am very amazed and happy about the healing Dr.Omoa i gave to me from the ancient part of Africa, you can email him now for your own healing too at: ( dradanikesolutionhome@outlook.com ) WhatsApp him or call +2348141309378
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    ReplyDelete
  6. I'm maria cooker , I contracted HIV in 2009, I was told by my doctor that there's no possible cure for HIV. I started taking my ARV's, My CD4 was 77 and viral load was 112,450. I saw a website of Dr. amadu, also I saw a lot of testimonials about him on how he uses herbal medicine to cure HIV. I contacted him and told him my problems, He sent me the herbal medicine and I took it for 7 days after then I went for check-up and I was cured. The medicine has NO SIDE EFFECT, there's no special diet when taking the medicine. He also cure ALS, HEPATITIS B, CANCER, HERPES, DIABETES and lots more. You can reach him on dramaduherbalhome@gmail.com. or dramaduherbalhome@outlook.com. or call/Whatsapp +2349052645237.

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  7. My name is RENNA JONES a single mum from the UNITED STATE OF AMERICA (TEXAS ) i never thought i will see today if not the help of Dr. Aluda i was pregnant for over 2yrs and some months the doctor told me i have HIV aids and that the baby was affected also and also i have cancer the doctor also was about going to performe surgery on my left breast i was so fruastrated i thought of killing my self then i ran into an old college friend of mine then i narated my story to her she burst into tears and confrot me then she told me that there was these great man who would give me herbs and root and myself and the baby will be alright as good, and she told me that it will only cost me some funds to get the herbs from Dr LOSA, money was never the problem i never thought of it but i said to myself i will be heal i cotacted him at once after some process i got the herbs he told me how to use it daily and am going to use the herbs for just 1months and after that 1months i should go for check up in the hospital i followed instructions very carfully and could you believe me it has not gotten to 1months and behold i was back again please another year is coming you should not let ailment follow you to next year contact doctor losa on (dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com ) he is ever ready and happy to render you service.
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    My name is RENNA JONES a single mum from the UNITED STATE OF AMERICA (TEXAS ) i never thought i will see today if not the help of Dr. Aluda i was pregnant for over 2yrs and some months the doctor told me i have HIV aids and that the baby was affected also and also i have cancer the doctor also was about going to performe surgery on my left breast i was so fruastrated i thought of killing my self then i ran into an old college friend of mine then i narated my story to her she burst into tears and confrot me then she told me that there was these great man who would give me herbs and root and myself and the baby will be alright as good, and she told me that it will only cost me some funds to get the herbs from Dr LOSA, money was never the problem i never thought of it but i said to myself i will be heal i cotacted him at once after some process i got the herbs he told me how to use it daily and am going to use the herbs for just 1months and after that 1months i should go for check up in the hospital i followed instructions very carfully and could you believe me it has not gotten to 1months and behold i was back again please another year is coming you should not let ailment follow you to next year contact doctor losa on (dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com ) he is ever ready and happy to render you service.
    contact him at....(dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com OR YOU CAN CALL OR WHATSAPP HIM +2349050141109)
    stay bless
    RENNA JONES.
    special on cureing

    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS
    5. HEPATITIS B
    6. DIABETES
    7. HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS DISEASE(HPV)
    8. ALZHEIMER
    9. LUPUS (Lupus Vulgaris or Lupus Erythematosus)

    ReplyDelete
  8. Been diagnosed of herpes is just like been through hell but everything is posible. So amazing and i want to testify of the good work done by dr AZIEGBE a very strong and powerful spell caster. dr AZIEGBE has proved science and scientists wrong for believing and thinking that there is no cure for Herpes Virus but to be sincere this dr AZIEGBE is so real and powerful. I never thought that this cure will work but this GREAT MAN has proved it to me and it has worked and still working perfectly. My Name is ESTHER and i was diagnosed of the deadly disease called Herpes April 2016 and i thought that, this will be the end and there will be no hope. Speaking to anyone was always a problem because i was so worried and always in the state of unrest in fact i thought it was over until one blessed day when i was searching for help here on the internet, i came across a testimony about dr AZIEGBE on how he helped a lady who was also infected with Herpes Virus, how he has also helped many others to get their loved ones back, and how he has also help others to cure HIV. At first i thought it was all a lie but i decided to give it a try since there was no option and, when i contacted this MAN he laughed and told me that, that is too small for him to handle but i was still in doubt, and he gave me a form to fill which I did, then he called me and told me that his gods required some items in which he will use in preparing the cure for me. He bought the items and prepared a cure for me, and instructed me on what to do and i OBEYED him completely as he told me. Then he sent a parcel to me through the courier delivery service. it was a holy water and a pure holy oil as described by dr AZIEGBE . I took the holy water and the holy oil and after taking it, he told me to go for check up but I was still in doubt and was so afraid to go for the test but i took a bold step and believed that it is well, and i believed all what he has done and all that he has told me. So i went to the hospital for the test it was so amazing, awesome and exciting what seems to be impossible became possible, the VIRUS disappeared completely from my system quickly I called him and told him what happened he congratulated me and today i am a happy person again the way things use to be. Don’t you think that this testimony is worth sharing? I promise to tell the world about him and i will keep sharing this testimony till the end because many people has died of herpes and i want many people who believed that it is over to know that EVERYTHING IS POSSIBLE AND I WANT THEM TO GET HELP FROM THIS SPELL CASTER by contacting him on his email at draziegbespellhome@gmail.com
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